the extraneous area formed by the entoconid, the hypoconid and sometimes the hypoconulid on the distal portion of the lower molar.
the study of the events and conditions that led to the fossilization and preservation of a particular specimen or assemblage of specimens.
a category (e.g., species, genus, family, and order) in the classification of organisms.
located at the lateral base of the skull; surrounded the external ear.
the space bounded by the cranium (medially) and the zygomatic arch (laterally) through which the temporalis muscle passes to its insertion on the coronoid process of the mandible.
the space (or depression) on the skull occupied by the temporal muscle.
a tested hypotheses that describes an observable fact or facts. A theory usually consists of an abundance of related ideas and explanations verified to be true through various and repeatable experiments and observations.
the section of the vertebral column where the ribs attach. Modern humans have twelve thoracic vertebrae.
the chest region that usually houses the lungs, heart, esophagus and related structures.
an interior web of bone that acts to reinforce the bones strength and stability; typically found near the ends of long bones and in between the cortex of flat bones. The structure of trabecular bone can be studied to determine an animal’s habitual physical behaviors.
the production of a single strand of messenger RNA (mRNA) from a double-stranded sequence of DNA; the first part of the process of creating proteins from genes.
the conversion of messenger RNA (mRNA) into a chain of amino acids that make up a protein that is coded for by the gene; the final step of the process of creating proteins from genes.
when a piece of a chromosome gets detached and is reattached in an inappropriate chromosome, resulting in a mutation.
‘The act of perforating the skull by grooving, scraping, or drilling to open the cranial cavity and allow for environmental interaction
the triangle formed by the protocone, paracone and metacone on the upper molar.
the triangle formed by the protocone, paracone and metacone on the mesial portion of the lower molar.
having three copies of a specific chromosome instead of two.
the torso of the body; place where appendages, head and/or tail attach.
a rugged or robust protuberance on a bone.