formed by the fusion of five sacral vertebrae; the part of the vertebral column that forms the most dorsal part of the pelvic girdle, in between the os coxae.
a protrusion made of bone at the joint between the parietal bones to which the temporalis muscles attach; common in many larger ape species and some fossil hominins.
a large, boat shaped carpal bone located in the proximal row that articulates distally with the lunate, trapezium, trapoezoid, capita and the capitate, and proximatlly with the radius.
[syn. shoulder blade] a flat triangular bone that articulates laterally with the proximal humerus.
a behavior that allows animals to incorporate meat into the diet, but one that relies on finding the carcasses of animals that died of natural causes or were killed by other predators, rather than engaging in active predation.
a process that studies the natural world and tests the accuracy of the results. Science’s primary utility comes from its self-correcting nature, as erroneous ideas are discarded.
a scientific statement or description of a fact that has been supported to be true by all available means of the scientific method. A scientific law explains behaviors or phenomena when specific conditions are applied.
the process used by scientist to answer or clarify scientific inquiries. The process begins with the formation of a hypothesis based upon observation, followed by further systematic observations and experiments related to the phenomenon in question. These experiments and observations are conducted several times to establish whether the results are repeatable. The repeatable results are then used to support or disprove the initial hypothesis.
the condition in which the males and females of a particular species each have different forms of the same feature or characteristic (e.g., body size, canine size). In those primate species that display marked sexual body size dimorphism, the males are larger than the females. In some species, such as gorillas and orangutans, the males are twice as large as the females (i.e., a 2:1 difference in mass).
the protective and supportive structure of an organism constructed of bone and cartilage
the bony portions of the head, including the cranium and the mandible
the basic unit of biodiversity. Individuals of a species are reproductively isolated, meaning that they cannot produce viable offspring with a mate of a different species. Taxonomic classification uses the binomial nomenclature: where the names of organisms start with a capitalized genus name (i.e., Homo for humans) and a specific epithet for the species name (i.e., sapiens for humans). Therefore, the proper species name for humans is Homo sapiens.
ankylosis specific to the vertebrae; arthritic processes on the vertebral column
a relative term used for bipedal hominins (those that travel on two legs) to describe features on the trunk that are closer to the head; the opposite of inferior. The term cranial is a synonym commonly used when referring to quadrupedal animals
an extra element
the idea that the top layer of sediments is younger than the sedimentarly layer below it
rotary motion that moves the thumb from the medial position to a lateral position; the opposite of pronation
a joint between two bones that are securely connected and are separated by fibrous tissue. The joints between most of the bones of the skull are sutures
an object, behavioral act, or language that stands for something else and carries some codified meaning
a type of joint that is cartilaginous
a shared primitive trait
a shared derived trait
Infectious disease process caused by Treponema pallidum, can be visible in bone
the science of classification; the organization of organisms according to their evolutionary relationships.
When a disease process affects the body as a whole